### Contents

# !mpz data type

The !mpz data type can store integer numbers of arbitrary size, up to the maximum memory allowed by PostgreSQL data types (about 1GB).

Every PostgreSQL integer type (!int16, !int32, !int64) can be converted to !mpz. Not integer types (!float4, !float8, !numeric) are truncated. Cast from integer types are automatic, whereas non integer require explicit cast (but are implicitly converted in assignment).

SELECT mpz(10000); -- Cast using mpz as a function SELECT 10000::mpz; -- PostgreSQL-style cast

Casting !mpz to PostgreSQL integer types and !numeric works as expected
and will overflow if the value is too big for their range. Casting to
!float4 and !float8 works as well: in case of overflow the value will be
*Infinity*.

!mpz values can be compared using the regular PostgreSQL comparison
operators. Indexes on !mpz columns can be created using the *btree* or the
*hash* method.

# !mpz textual input/output

**function:**

*mpz(text)*

*mpz(text,*

*base)*

Convert a textual representation into an !mpz number. The form {text}::mpz is equivalent to mpz({text}).

White space is allowed in the string, and is simply ignored.

The *base* may vary from 2 to 62, or if *base* is 0 or omitted, then the
leading characters are used: `0x` and `0X` for hexadecimal, `0b` and
`0B` for binary, `0` for octal, or decimal otherwise.

For bases up to 36, case is ignored; upper-case and lower-case letters have the same value. For bases 37 to 62, upper-case letter represent the usual 10..35 while lower-case letter represent 36..61.

=# SELECT '0x10'::mpz AS "hex", '10'::mpz AS "dec", -# '010'::mpz AS "oct", '0b10'::mpz AS "bin"; hex | dec | oct | bin -----+-----+-----+----- 16 | 10 | 8 | 2

Note

The maximum base accepted by GMP 4.1 is 36, not 62.

**function:**

*text(z)*

*text(z,*

*base)*

Convert the !mpz *z* into a string. The form {z}::text is
equivalent to text({z}).

*base* may vary from 2 to 62 or from -2 to -36. For base in the range
2..36, digits and lower-case letters are used; for -2..-36, digits and
upper-case letters are used; for 37..62, digits, upper-case letters, and
lower-case letters (in that significance order) are used. If *base* is not
specified, 10 is assumed.

Note

The maximum base accepted by GMP 4.1 is 36, not 62.

# Arithmetic Operators and Functions

These operators can either work on !mpz arguments or take an integer
argument that will be implicitly converted. Operators taking a 2^{n}
argument always use an integer as right argument.

Note

GMP defines many structures in terms of !long or !unsigned long, whose definitions may vary across platforms. PostgreSQL instead offers data types with a defined number of bytes (e.g. !int4, !int8). For this reason, functions taking an integer as argument are defined as !int8, but they may actually fail if the server is 32 bit and the argument doesn't fit into an !int4.

Operator | Description | Example | Return |
---|---|---|---|

!- | Unary minus | !- 5::mpz | -5 |

!+ | Unary plus | !+ 5::mpz | 5 |

!+ | Addition | !2::mpz + 3::mpz | 5 |

!- | Subtraction | !2::mpz - 3::mpz | -1 |

!* | Multiplication | !7::mpz * 3::mpz | 21 |

!<< | Multiplication by 2^{n} |
!3::mpz << 2 | 12 |

!^ | Power (1) | !3::mpz ^ 2 | 9 |

Notes:

- See also the exponentiation functions.

**function:**

*abs(z)*

Return the absolute value of *z*.

**function:**

*sgn(z)*

Return +1 if *z* > 0, 0 if *z* = 0, and -1 if *z* < 0.

**function:**

*odd(z)*

*even(z)*

Return !true if *z* is odd or even, respectively, else !false.

# Division Operators and Functions

For all the division-related operators *n*⊘*d*, *q* and
*r* will satisfy *n* = *q*⋅*d* + *r*, and *r* will satisfy
0 ≤ |*r*|\lt|*d*|.

Note

Only the truncating division and reminder (!/ and !%) have the correct precedence respect to addition, subtraction and multiplication. See the PostgreSQL precedence table for further details.

Operator | Description | Example | Return |
---|---|---|---|

!/ | Division quotient Rounding towards zero |
! 7::mpz / 3::mpz !-7::mpz / 3::mpz |
2 -2 |

!% | Division reminder Rounding towards zero |
! 7::mpz % 3::mpz !-7::mpz % 3::mpz |
1 -1 |

+/ | Division quotient Rounding towards +infinity |
! 7::mpz +/ 3::mpz !-7::mpz +/ 3::mpz |
3 -2 |

+% | Division reminder Rounding towards +infinity |
! 7::mpz +% 3::mpz !-7::mpz +% 3::mpz |
-2 -1 |

!-/ | Division quotient Rounding towards -infinity |
! 7::mpz -/ 3::mpz !-7::mpz -/ 3::mpz |
2 -3 |

!-% | Division reminder Rounding towards -infinity |
! 7::mpz -% 3::mpz !-7::mpz -% 3::mpz |
1 2 |

/? | Divisible (1) | !21::mpz /? 7::mpz | !true |

/! | Exact division (2) | !21::mpz /! 7::mpz | 3 |

Notes:

- See also the function divisible().
- The exact division operator (!/!) produces correct results only when it
is known in advance that
*d*divides*n*. The operator is much faster than the other division operators, and is the best choice when exact division is known to occur, for example reducing a rational to lowest terms.

Operator | Description | Example | Return |
---|---|---|---|

!>> | Quotient of division by 2 Rounding towards zero |
! 1027::mpz >> 3 !-1027::mpz >> 3 |
128 -128 |

!%> | Remainder of division by 2 Rounding towards zero |
! 1027::mpz %> 3 !-1027::mpz %> 3 |
3 -3 |

!+>> | Quotient of division by 2 Rounding towards +infinity |
! 1027::mpz +>> 3 !-1027::mpz +>> 3 |
129 -128 |

!+%> | Remainder of division by 2 Rounding towards +infinity |
! 1027::mpz +%> 3 !-1027::mpz +%> 3 |
-5 -3 |

!->> | Quotient of division by 2 Rounding towards -infinity |
! 1027::mpz ->> 3 !-1027::mpz ->> 3 |
128 -129 |

!-%> | Remainder of division by 2 Rounding towards -infinity |
! 1027::mpz -%> 3 !-1027::mpz -%> 3 |
3 5 |

>>? | Divisible by 2^{n} (1) |
!64::mpz >>? 3 | !true |

- See also the function divisible_2exp().

**function:**

*tdiv_qr(n,*

*d)*

Return a tuple containing quotient *q* and remainder *r* of the division,
rounding towards 0.

**function:**

*cdiv_qr(n,*

*d)*

Return a tuple containing quotient *q* and remainder *r* of the division,
rounding towards +infinity (ceil).

**function:**

*fdiv_qr(n,*

*d)*

Return a tuple containing quotient *q* and remainder *r* of the division,
rounding towards -infinity (floor).

**function:**

*divisible(n,*

*d)*

*divisible_2exp(n,*

*b)*

Return !true if *n* is exactly divisible by *d*, or in the case of
!divisible_2exp() by 2^{b}.

*n* is divisible by *d* if there exists an integer *q*
satisfying *n* = *q*⋅*d*. Unlike the other division operators,
*d*=0 is accepted and following the rule it can be seen that only 0
is considered divisible by 0.

The operators !/? and !>>? are aliases for !divisible() and !divisible_2exp().

**function:**

*congruent(n,*

*c,*

*d)*

*congruent_2exp(n,*

*c,*

*b)*

Return !true if *n* is congruent to *c* modulo *d*, or in the case of
!congruent_2exp() modulo 2^{b}.

*n* is congruent to *c*\mod*d* if there exists an integer
*q* satisfying *n* = *c* + *q*⋅*d*. Unlike the other division
operators, *d*=0 is accepted and following the rule it can be seen that n
and c are considered congruent mod 0 only when exactly equal.

# Exponentiation Functions

**function:**

*pow(base,*

*exp)*

Return *base* raised to *exp*.

*exp* is defined as !int8 but must fit into a !long as defined on the
server.

The function is an alias for the !^ operator.

**function:**

*powm(base,*

*exp,*

*mod)*

Return (*base* raised to *exp*) modulo *mod*.

Negative *exp* is supported if an inverse *base^-1* mod *mod* exists (see
invert() function). If an inverse doesn't exist then a divide by zero is
raised.

# Root Extraction Functions

**function:**

*root(op,*

*n)*

Return the truncated integer part of the *n*th root of *op*.

*n* is defined as !int8 but must fit into a !long as defined on the
server.

**function:**

*rootrem(op,*

*n)*

Return a tuple of 2 elements with the truncated integer part of the *n*th
root of *op* and the remainder (*i.e.* *op* - *root* ^ *n*).

=# select * from rootrem(28, 3); root | rem ------+----- 3 | 1

Note

The function is not available on GMP version < 4.2.

**function:**

*sqrt(op)*

Return the truncated integer part of the square root of *op*.

**function:**

*sqrtrem(op)*

Return a tuple of 2 elements with the truncated integer part of the square
root of *op* and the remainder (*i.e.* *op* - *root* * *root*).

=# select * from sqrtrem(83); root | rem ------+----- 9 | 2

**function:**

*perfect_power(op)*

Return !true if *op* is a perfect power, *i.e.*, if there exist
integers *a* and *b*, with *b* > 1, such that *op* equals
*a*^{b}.

Under this definition both 0 and 1 are considered to be perfect powers. Negative values of op are accepted, but of course can only be odd perfect powers.

**function:**

*perfect_square(op)*

Return !true if *op* is a perfect square, *i.e.*, if the square root of
*op* is an integer. Under this definition both 0 and 1 are considered to
be perfect squares.

# Number Theoretic Functions

**function:**

*probab_prime(n,*

*reps)*

Determine whether *n* is prime. Return 2 if *n* is definitely prime,
return 1 if *n* is probably prime (without being certain), or return 0 if
*n* is definitely composite.

This function does some trial divisions, then some Miller-Rabin
probabilistic primality tests. *reps* controls how many such tests are
done, 5 to 10 is a reasonable number, more will reduce the chances of a
composite being returned as "probably prime".

Miller-Rabin and similar tests can be more properly called compositeness tests. Numbers which fail are known to be composite but those which pass might be prime or might be composite. Only a few composites pass, hence those which pass are considered probably prime.

**seealso:**

*`Primality*

*test*

*<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primality_test>`__*

**function:**

*nextprime(op)*

Return the next prime greater than *op*.

This function uses a probabilistic algorithm to identify primes. For practical purposes it's adequate, the chance of a composite passing will be extremely small.

**function:**

*gcd(a,*

*b)*

Return the greatest common divisor of *a* and *b*. The result is
always positive even if one or both input operands are negative.

**function:**

*gcdext(a,*

*b)*

Return the greatest common divisor *g* of *a* and *b*, and in addition
coefficients *s* and *t* satisfying *a*⋅*s* + *b*⋅*t* = *g*. The
value *g* is always positive, even if one or both of *a* and *b* are
negative. The values *s* and *t* are chosen such that |*s*| ≤ |*b*| and |*t*| ≤ |*a*| .

=# select * from gcdext(6, 15); g | s | t ---+----+--- 3 | -2 | 1

**function:**

*lcm(a,*

*b)*

Return the least common multiple of *a* and *b*. The value returned is
always positive, irrespective of the signs of *a* and *b*. The return
will be zero if either *a* or *b* is zero.

**function:**

*fac(op)*

Return *op*!, the factorial of *op*.

**function:**

*bin(n,*

*k)*

Return the binomial coefficient *n*\choose*k*.
Negative values of *n* are supported, using the identity
− *n*\choose*k* = ( − 1)^{k}*n* + *k* − 1\choose*k*.

**function:**

*fib(n)*

*fib2(n)*

!fib() returns *F*_{n}, the *n*th Fibonacci number.
!fib2() returns *F*_{n} and *F*_{n − 1}.

These functions are designed for calculating isolated Fibonacci numbers.
When a sequence of values is wanted it's best to start with !fib2()
and iterate the defining *F*_{n + 1} = *F*_{n} + *F*_{n − 1} or similar.

**function:**

*lucnum(n)*

*lucnum2(n)*

!lucnum() returns *L*_{n}, the *n*th Lucas number.
!lucnum2() returns *L*_{n} and *L*_{n − 1}.

These functions are designed for calculating isolated Lucas numbers.
When a sequence of values is wanted it's best to start with !lucnum2()
and iterate the defining *L*_{n + 1} = *L*_{n} + *L*_{n − 1} or similar.

The Fibonacci numbers and Lucas numbers are related sequences, so it's never necessary to call both !fib2() and !lucnum2(). The formulas for going from Fibonacci to Lucas can be found in Lucas Numbers Algorithm, the reverse is straightforward too.

**function:**

*invert(a,*

*b)*

Return the inverse of *a* modulo *b* if exists. The return value *r*
will satisfy 0 ≤ *r*\lt*b*. If an inverse doesn't exist return
!NULL.

**function:**

*legendre(a,*

*p)*

Calculate the Legendre symbol ((*a*)/(*p*)). This is defined
only for *p* an odd positive prime, and for such *p* it's identical to the
Jacobi symbol.

**function:**

*kronecker(a,*

*b)*

Calculate the Jacobi symbol ((*a*)/(*b*)) with the Kronecker
extension ((*a*)/(2)) = ((2)/(*a*)) when *a* odd, or
((*a*)/(2)) = 0 when *a* even.

**seealso:**

*Section*

*1.4.2,*

*Henri*

*Cohen,*

*"A*

*Course*

*in*

*Computational*

*Algebraic*

*Number*

*Theory",*

*Graduate*

*Texts*

*in*

*Mathematics*

*number*

*138,*

*Springer-Verlag,*

*1993.*

*https://www.math.u-bordeaux.fr/~cohen/*

# Logical and Bit Manipulation Functions

These functions behave as if twos complement arithmetic were used (although sign-magnitude is the actual implementation). The least significant bit is number 0.

Operator | Description | Example | Return |
---|---|---|---|

!& | Bitwise and | !'0b10001'::mpz & '0b01001'::mpz | !'0b1'::mpz |

!| | Bitwise inclusive-or | !'0b10001'::mpz | '0b01001'::mpz | !'0b11001'::mpz |

!# | Bitwise exclusive-or | !'0b10001'::mpz # '0b01001'::mpz | !'0b11000'::mpz |

**function:**

*com(op)*

Return the ones' complement of *op*.

**function:**

*popcount(op)*

If op>=0, return the population count of *op*, which is the number of 1
bits in the binary representation. If op<0, the number of 1s is infinite,
and the return value is the largest possible, represented by
gmp_max_bitcnt().

**function:**

*hamdist(op1,*

*op2)*

If *op1* and *op2* are both >=0 or both <0, return the Hamming
distance
between the two operands, which is the number of bit positions where *op1*
and *op2* have different bit values. If one operand is >=0 and the other <0
then the number of bits different is infinite, and the return value is the
largest possible, represented by gmp_max_bitcnt().

**function:**

*scan0(op,*

*starting_bit)*

*scan1(op,*

*starting_bit)*

Scan *op*, starting from bit *starting_bit*, towards more significant
bits, until the first 0 or 1 bit (respectively) is found. Return the index
of the found bit.

If the bit at *starting_bit* is already what's sought, then *starting_bit*
is returned.

If there's no bit found, then the largest possible bit count is returned (represented by gmp_max_bitcnt()). This will happen in !scan0() past the end of a negative number, or !scan1() past the end of a nonnegative number.

**function:**

*setbit(op,*

*bit_index)*

Return *op* with bit *bit_index* set.

**function:**

*clrbit(op,*

*bit_index)*

Return *op* with bit *bit_index* cleared.

**function:**

*combit(op,*

*bit_index)*

Return *op* with bit *bit_index* complemented.

Note

The function is not available on GMP version < 4.2.

**function:**

*tstbit(op,*

*bit_index)*

Test bit *bit_index* in *op* and return 0 or 1 accordingly.

# Random number functions

Sequences of pseudo-random numbers are generated using an internal per-session variable, which holds an algorithm selection and a current state. Such a variable must be initialized by a call to one of the !randinit*() functions, and can be seeded with the randseed() function.

**function:**

*randinit()*

Initialize the session random state with a default algorithm. This will be a compromise between speed and randomness, and is recommended for applications with no special requirements. Currently this is randinit_mt().

**function:**

*randinit_mt()*

Initialize the session random state for a Mersenne Twister algorithm. This algorithm is fast and has good randomness properties.

Note

The function is not available on GMP version < 4.2.

**function:**

*randinit_lc_2exp(a,*

*c,*

*e)*

Initialize the session random state with a linear congruential
algorithm *X* = (*a*⋅*X* + *c*)\mod2^{e}.

The low bits of *X* in this algorithm are not very random. The least
significant bit will have a period no more than 2, and the second bit no
more than 4, etc. For this reason only the high half of each *X* is
actually used.

When a random number of more than *e* ⁄ 2 bits is to be generated,
multiple iterations of the recurrence are used and the results
concatenated.

**function:**

*randinit_lc_2exp_size(s)*

Initialize the session random state for a linear congruential algorithm as
per randinit_lc_2exp(). *a*, *c* and *e* are selected from a table,
chosen so that size bits (or more) of each *X* will be used, ie.
*e* ⁄ 2 ≥ *s*.

The function fails if *s* is bigger than the table data provides. The
maximum size currently supported is 128.

**function:**

*randseed(seed)*

Set an initial seed value into session random state.

The size of a seed determines how many different sequences of random numbers is possible to generate. The "quality" of the seed is the randomness of a given seed compared to the previous seed used, and this affects the randomness of separate number sequences. The method for choosing a seed is critical if the generated numbers are to be used for important applications, such as generating cryptographic keys.

Traditionally the system time has been used to seed, but care needs to be
taken with this. If an application seeds often and the resolution of the
system clock is low, then the same sequence of numbers might be repeated.
Also, the system time is quite easy to guess, so if unpredictability is
required then it should definitely not be the only source for the seed
value. On some systems there's a special device `/dev/random` which
provides random data better suited for use as a seed.

**function:**

*urandomb(n)*

Generate a uniformly distributed random integer in the range 0 to
2^{n} − 1, inclusive.

The session state must be initialized by calling one of the !randinit() functions before invoking this function.

**function:**

*urandomm(n)*

Generate a uniformly distributed random integer in the range 0 to
*n*-1, inclusive.

The session state must be initialized by calling one of the !randinit() functions before invoking this function.

**function:**

*rrandomb(n)*

Generate a random integer with long strings of zeros and ones in the
binary representation. Useful for testing functions and algorithms, since
this kind of random numbers have proven to be more likely to trigger
corner-case bugs. The random number will be in the range 0 to
2^{n} − 1, inclusive.

The session state must be initialized by calling one of the !randinit() functions before invoking this function.

# Aggregation functions

**function:**

*sum(z)*

Return the sum of *z* across all input values.

**function:**

*prod(z)*

Return the product of *z* across all input values.

**function:**

*max(z)*

Return the maximum value of *z* across all input values.

**function:**

*min(z)*

Return the minimum value of *z* across all input values.

**function:**

*bit_and(z)*

Return the bitwise and of *z* across all input values.

**function:**

*bit_or(z)*

Return the bitwise inclusive-or of *z* across all input values.

**function:**

*bit_xor(z)*

Return the bitwise exclusive-or of *z* across all input values.