## Chapter 5 SQL Function Reference

### 5.1 Mathematical Functions

The following mathematical functions are supported:

• BITAND
• COSH
• SINH
• TANH

#### 5.1.1 BITAND

Description

Performs a bitwise AND operation.

Syntax

General rules

• BITAND performs an AND operation on each bit of two integers, and returns the result.
• Specify integer type values.
• The data type of the return value is BIGINT.

Example

In the following example, the result of the AND operation on numeric literals 5 and 3 is returned.

~~~ SELECT BITAND(5,3) FROM DUAL;

## bitand

``````  1
``````

(1 row) ~~~

#### 5.1.2 COSH

Description

Calculates the hyperbolic cosine of a number.

Syntax

General rules

• COSH returns the hyperbolic cosine of the specified number.
• The number must be a numeric data type.
• The data type of the return value is DOUBLE PRECISION.

Example

In the following example, the hyperbolic cosine of the numeric literal 2.236 is returned.

~~~ SELECT COSH(2.236) FROM DUAL;

## cosh

4.7313591000247 (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.1.3 SINH

Description

Calculates the hyperbolic sine of a number.

Syntax

General rules

• SINH returns the hyperbolic sine of the specified number.
• The number must be a numeric data type.
• The data type of the return value is DOUBLE PRECISION.

Example

In the following example, the hyperbolic sine of the numeric literal 1.414 is returned.

~~~ SELECT SINH(1.414) FROM DUAL;

## sinh

1.93460168824956 (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.1.4 TANH

Description

Calculates the hyperbolic tangent of a number.

Syntax

General rules

• TANH returns the hyperbolic tangent of the specified number.
• The number must be a numeric data type.
• The data type of the return value is DOUBLE PRECISION.

Example

In the following example, the hyperbolic tangent of the numeric literal 3 is returned.

~~~ SELECT TANH(3) FROM DUAL;

## tanh

0.995054753686731 (1 row) ~~~

### 5.2 String Functions

The following string functions are supported:

• BTRIM
• INSTR
• LENGTH
• LENGTHB
• LTRIM
• NLSSORT
• RTRIM
• SUBSTR
• SUBSTRB

#### 5.2.1 BTRIM

Description

Removes the specified characters from the beginning and end of a string.

Syntax

General rules

• BTRIM returns a string with trimChars removed from the beginning and end of string str.
• If multiple trim characters are specified, all characters matching the trim characters are removed. If trimChars is omitted, all leading and trailing halfwidth spaces are removed.
• The data type of the return value is TEXT.

Note

• BTRIM does not exist for Oracle databases.
• The CHAR type specification for BTRIM uses orafce for its behavior, which is different to that of BTRIM of PostgreSQL. The search_path parameter must be modified for it to behave the same as the specification described above.

Information

The general rule for BTRIM of PostgreSQL is as follows:

• If the string is CHAR type, trailing spaces are removed and then the trim characters are removed.

See

• Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.
• Refer to "The SQL Language" > "Functions and Operators" > "String Functions and Operators" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on BTRIM.

Example

In the following example, a string that has had "a" removed from both ends of "aabcaba" is returned.

~~~ SELECT BTRIM('aabcaba','a') FROM DUAL;

## btrim

bcab (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.2.2 INSTR

Description

Returns the position of a substring in a string.

Syntax

General rules

• INSTR searches for substring str2 in string str1 and returns the position (in characters) in str1 of the first character of the occurrence.
• The search starts from the specified start position startPos in str1.
• When startPos is 0 or negative, the start position will be the specified number of characters from the left of the end of str1, and INSTR will search backward from that point.
• If the start position is not specified, the search will be performed from the beginning of str1.
• If occurrences is specified, the position in str1 of the nth occurrence of str2 is returned. Only positive numbers can be specified.
• If occurrences is not specified, the start position of the first occurrence that is found is returned.
• If str2 is not found in str1, 0 is returned.
• For startPos and occurrences, specify a SMALLINT or INTEGER type.
• The data type of the return value is INTEGER.

Example

In the following example, characters "BC" are found in string "ABCACBCAAC", and the position of those characters is returned.

~~~ SELECT INSTR('ABCACBCAAC','BC') FROM DUAL;

## instr

`````` 2
``````

(1 row)

SELECT INSTR('ABCACBCAAC','BC',-1,2) FROM DUAL;

## instr

`````` 2
``````

(1 row) ~~~

#### 5.2.3 LENGTH

Description

Returns the length of a string in number of characters.

Syntax

General rules

• LENGTH returns the number of characters in string str.
• If the string is CHAR type, trailing spaces are included in the length.
• The data type of the return value is INTEGER.

Note

The LENGTH specification above uses orafce for its behavior, which is different to that of LENGTH of PostgreSQL. The search_path parameter must be modified for it to behave according to the orafce specification.

Information

The general rule for LENGTH of PostgreSQL is as follows:

• If the string is CHAR type, trailing spaces are not included in the length.

See

• Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.
• Refer to "The SQL Language" > "Functions and Operators" > "String Functions and Operators" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on LENGTH.

Example

In the following example, the number of characters in column col2 (defined using CHAR(10)) in table t1 is returned.

~~~ SELECT col2,LENGTH(col2) FROM t1 WHERE col1 = '1001'; col2 | length ------------+-------- AAAAA | 10 (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.2.4 LENGTHB

Description

Returns the length of a string in number of bytes.

Syntax

General rules

• LENGTHB returns the number of bytes in string str.
• If the string is CHAR type, trailing spaces are included in the length.
• The data type of the return value is INTEGER.

Example

In the following example, the number of bytes in column col2 (defined using CHAR(10)) in table t1 is returned. Note that, in the second SELECT statement, each character in "*" has a length of 3 bytes, for a total of 9 bytes, and 7 bytes are added for the 7 trailing spaces. This gives a result of 16 bytes.

~~~ SELECT col2,LENGTHB(col2) FROM t1 WHERE col1 = '1001'; col2 | lengthb ---------------+--------- AAAAA | 10 (1 row)

SELECT col2,LENGTHB(col2) FROM t1 WHERE col1 = '1004'; col2 | lengthb ---------------+--------- * | 16 (1 row) ~~~

Description

Left-pads a string to a specified length with a sequence of characters.

Syntax

General rules

• LPAD returns the result after repeatedly padding the beginning of string str with padding characters paddingStr until the string reaches length len.
• If the string is CHAR type, the padding characters are added to the string without removing trailing spaces.
• In the resultant string, fullwidth characters are recognized as having a length of 2, and halfwidth characters having a length of 1. If a fullwidth character cannot be included in the resultant string because there is only space available for one halfwidth character, the string is padded with a single-byte space.
• The data type of the return value is TEXT.

Note

The LPAD specification above uses orafce for its behavior, which is different to that of LPAD of PostgreSQL. The search_path parameter must be modified for it to behave according to the orafce specification.

Information

The general rules for LPAD of PostgreSQL are as follows:

• If the string is CHAR type, trailing spaces are removed and then the padding characters are added to the string.
• The result length is the number of characters.

See

• Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.
• Refer to "The SQL Language" > "Functions and Operators" > "String Functions and Operators" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on LPAD.

Example

In the following example, a 10-character string that has been formed by left-padding the string "abc" with "a" is returned.

~~~ SELECT LPAD('abc',10,'a') FROM DUAL;

aaaaaaaabc (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.2.6 LTRIM

Description

Removes the specified characters from the beginning of a string.

Syntax

General rules

• LTRIM returns a string with trimChars removed from the beginning of string str.
• If multiple trim characters are specified, all characters matching the trim characters are removed. If trimChars is omitted, all leading halfwidth spaces are removed.
• The data type of the return value is TEXT.

Note

The LTRIM specification above uses orafce for its behavior, which is different to that of LTRIM of PostgreSQL. The search_path parameter must be modified for it to behave according to the orafce specification.

Information

The general rule for LTRIM of PostgreSQL is as follows:

• If the string is CHAR type, trailing spaces are removed and then the trim characters are removed.

See

• Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.
• Refer to "The SQL Language" > "Functions and Operators" > "String Functions and Operators" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on LTRIM.

Example

In the following example, a string that has had "ab" removed from the beginning of "aabcab" is returned.

~~~ SELECT LTRIM('aabcab','ab') FROM DUAL;

## ltrim

cab (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.2.7 NLSSORT

Description

Returns a byte string that denotes the lexical order of the locale (COLLATE).

Syntax

General rules

• NLSSORT is used for comparing and sorting in the collating sequence of a locale (COLLATE) that differs from the default locale.
• Values that can be specified for the locale differ according to the operating system of the database server.
• If the locale is omitted, it is necessary to use set_nls_sort to set the locale in advance. To set the locale using set_nls_sort, execute a SELECT statement.

Example of setting set_nls_sort using a SELECT statement

~~~ SELECT set_nls_sort('en_US.UTF8'); ~~~

• The data type of the return value is BYTEA.

Note

If specifying locale encoding, ensure it matches the database encoding.

See

Refer to "Server Administration" > "Localization" > "Locale Support" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on the locales that can be specified.

Example

[Composition of table (t3)]

|col1 | col2| |:--- |:--- | |1001 |aabcababc| |2001 |abcdef| |3001 |aacbaab|

In the following example, the result of sorting column col2 in table t3 by "da_DK.UTF8" is returned.

~~~ SELECT col1,col2 FROM t3 ORDER BY NLSSORT(col2,'da_DK.UTF8'); col1 | col2 ------+------------ 2001 | abcdef 1001 | aabcababc 3001 | aacbaab (3 row) ~~~

Description

Right-pads a string to a specified length with a sequence of characters.

Syntax

General rules

• RPAD returns the result after repeatedly padding the end of string str with padding characters paddingStr until the string reaches length len.
• If the string is CHAR type, the padding characters are added to the string without removing trailing spaces.
• In the resultant string, fullwidth characters are recognized as having a length of 2, and halfwidth characters having a length of 1. If a fullwidth character cannot be included in the resultant string because there is only space available for one halfwidth character, the string is padded with a single-byte space.
• The data type of the return value is TEXT.

Note

The RPAD specification above uses orafce for its behavior, which is different to that of RPAD of PostgreSQL. The search_path parameter must be modified for it to behave according to the orafce specification.

Information

The general rules for RPAD of PostgreSQL are as follows:

• If the string is CHAR type, trailing spaces are removed and then the padding characters are added to the string.
• The result length is the number of characters.

See

• Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.
• Refer to "The SQL Language" > "Functions and Operators" > "String Functions and Operators" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on RPAD.

Example

In the following example, a 10-character string that has been formed by right-padding the string "abc" with "a" is returned.

~~~ SELECT RPAD('abc',10,'a') FROM DUAL;

abcaaaaaaa (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.2.9 RTRIM

Description

Removes the specified characters from the end of a string.

Syntax

General rules

• RTRIM returns a string with trimChars removed from the end of string str.
• If multiple trim characters are specified, all characters matching the trim characters are removed. If trimChars is omitted, all trailing halfwidth spaces are removed.
• The data type of the return value is TEXT.

Note

The RTRIM specification above uses orafce for its behavior, which is different to that of RTRIM of PostgreSQL. The search_path parameter must be modified for it to behave the same as the orafce specification.

Information

The general rule for RTRIM of PostgreSQL is as follows:

• If the string is CHAR type, trailing spaces are removed and then the trim characters are removed.

See

• Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.
• Refer to "The SQL Language" > "Functions and Operators" > "String Functions and Operators" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on RTRIM.

Example

In the following example, a string that has had "ab" removed from the end of "aabcab" is returned.

~~~ SELECT RTRIM('aabcab','ab') FROM DUAL;

## rtrim

aabc (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.2.10 SUBSTR

Description

Extracts part of a string using characters to specify position and length.

Syntax

General rules

• SUBSTR extracts and returns a substring of string str, beginning at position startPos, for number of characters len.
• When startPos is positive, it will be the number of characters from the beginning of the string.
• When startPos is 0, it will be treated as 1.
• When startPos is negative, it will be the number of characters from the end of the string.
• When len is not specified, all characters to the end of the string are returned. NULL is returned when len is less than 1.
• For startPos and len, specify an integer or NUMERIC type. If numbers including decimal places are specified, they are truncated to integers.
• The data type of the return value is TEXT.

Note

• There are two types of SUBSTR. One that behaves as described above and one that behaves the same as SUBSTRING. The search_path parameter must be modified for it to behave the same as the specification described above.
• If the change has not been implemented, SUBSTR is the same as SUBSTRING.

Information

The general rules for SUBSTRING are as follows:

• The start position will be from the beginning of the string, whether the start position is positive, 0, or negative.
• When len is not specified, all characters to the end of the string are returned.
• An empty string is returned if no string is extracted or len is less than 1.

See

Refer to "The SQL Language" > "Functions and Operators" > "String Functions and Operators" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on SUBSTRING.

Example

In the following example, part of the string "ABCDEFG" is extracted.

~~~ SELECT SUBSTR('ABCDEFG',3,4) "Substring" FROM DUAL;

## Substring

CDEF (1 row)

SELECT SUBSTR('ABCDEFG',-5,4) "Substring" FROM DUAL;

## Substring

CDEF (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.2.11 SUBSTRB

Description

Extracts part of a string using bytes to specify position and length.

Syntax

General rules

• SUBSTRB extracts and returns a substring of string str, beginning at byte position startPos, for number of bytes len.
• When startPos is 0 or negative, extraction starts at the position found by subtracting 1 from the start position and shifting by that number of positions to the left.
• When len is not specified, all bytes to the end of the string are returned.
• An empty string is returned if no string is extracted or len is less than 1.
• For startPos and len, specify a SMALLINT or INTEGER type.
• The data type of the return value is VARCHAR2.

Note

The external specification of SUBSTRB is different to that of SUBSTR added by orafce, conforming with SUBSTRING of PostgreSQL.

Example

In the following example, part of the string "aaabbbccc" is extracted.

~~~ SELECT SUBSTRB('aaabbbccc',4,3) FROM DUAL;

## substrb

bbb (1 row)

SELECT SUBSTRB('aaabbbccc',-2,6) FROM DUAL;

## substrb

aaa (1 row) ~~~

### 5.3 Date/time Functions

The following date/time functions are supported:

• DBTIMEZONE
• LAST_DAY
• MONTHS_BETWEEN
• NEXT_DAY
• ROUND
• SESSIONTIMEZONE
• SYSDATE
• TRUNC

Note

If the DATE type only is shown in the date/time functions, these functions can be used in both orafce and PostgreSQL.

Description

Adds months to a date.

Syntax

General rules

• ADD_MONTHS returns date plus months.
• For date, specify a DATE type.
• For months, specify a SMALLINT or INTEGER type.
• If a negative value is specified for months, the number of months is subtracted from the date.
• The data type of the return value is DATE.

Note

If using the DATE type of orafce, it is necessary to specify "oracle" for search_path in advance.

See

Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.

Example

The example below shows the result of adding 3 months to the date May 1, 2016.

~~~ SELECT ADD_MONTHS(DATE'2016/05/01',3) FROM DUAL;

2016-08-01 00:00:00 (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.3.2 DBTIMEZONE

Description

Returns the value of the database time zone.

Syntax

General rules

• DBTIMEZONE returns the time zone value of the database.
• The data type of the return value is TEXT.

Note

• If using DBTIMEZONE, it is necessary to specify "oracle" for search_path in advance.
• The time zone of the database is set to "GMT" by default. To change the time zone, change the "orafce.timezone" parameter. An example using the SET statement is shown below.

Setting example of orafce.timezone using a SET statement

~~~ SET orafce.timezone = 'Japan'; ~~~

• The orafce.timezone settings can be set using any of the methods for setting server parameters.
• If the SQL statement is executed with orafce.timezone set, the following message may be displayed, however, the parameter settings are enabled, so you can ignore this.

~~~ WARNING: unrecognized configuration parameter "orafce.timezone" ~~~

• The time zones that can be set in "orafce.timezone" are the same as for the "TimeZone" server parameter.

See

• Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.
• Refer to "The SQL Language" > "Data Types" > "Date/Time Types" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on the time zone.

Example

In the following example, the DBTIMEZONE result is returned.

~~~ SELECT DBTIMEZONE() FROM DUAL;

## dbtimezone

GMT (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.3.3 LAST_DAY

Description

Returns the last day of the month in which the specified date falls.

Syntax

General rules

• LAST_DAY returns the last day of the month in which the specified date falls.
• For date, specify a DATE type.
• The data type of the return value is DATE.

Note

If using the DATE type of orafce, it is necessary to specify "oracle" for search_path in advance.

See

Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.

Example

In the example below, the last date of "February 01, 2016" is returned.

~~~ SELECT LAST_DAY(DATE'2016/02/01') FROM DUAL;

## last_day

2016-02-29 00:00:00 (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.3.4 MONTHS_BETWEEN

Description

Returns the number of months between two dates.

Syntax

General rules

• MONTHS_BETWEEN returns the difference in the number of months between date1 and date2.
• For date1 and date2, specify a DATE type.
• If date2 is earlier than date1, the return value will be negative.
• If two dates fall on the same day, or each of the two dates are the last day of the month to which they belong, an integer is returned. If the days are different, one month is considered to be 31 days, and a value with the difference in the number of days divided by 31 added is returned.
• The data type of the return value is NUMERIC.

Note

If using the DATE type of orafce, it is necessary to specify "oracle" for search_path in advance.

See

Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.

Example

In the following example, the difference between the months of March 15, 2016 and November 15, 2015 is returned.

~~~ SELECT MONTHS_BETWEEN(DATE'2016/03/15', DATE'2015/11/15') FROM DUAL;

## months_between

``````           4
``````

(1 row) ~~~

#### 5.3.5 NEXT_DAY

Description

Returns the date of the first instance of a particular day of the week that follows the specified date.

Syntax

General rules

• NEXT_DAY returns the date matching the first instance of dayOfWk that follows date.
• For date, specify a DATE type.
• Specify a numeric value or string indicating the day of the week.

Values that can be specified for the day

|Setting example|Overview| |:---|:---| |1|1 (Sunday) to 7 (Saturday) can be specified| |'Sun', or 'Sunday'|English display of the day| |'*'|Japanese display of the day|

• The data type of the return value is DATE.

Note

• If using the DATE type of orafce, it is necessary to specify "oracle" for search_path in advance.
• The ability to use Japanese for entering days is provided by the orafce proprietary specification. Japanese cannot be used for entering days when using date/time functions other than NEXT_DAY (such as TO_DATE).

See

Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.

Example

In the example below, the date of the first Friday on or after "May 1, 2016" is returned.

~~~ SELECT NEXT_DAY(DATE'2016/05/01', 'Friday') FROM DUAL;

## next_day

2016-05-06 00:00:00 (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.3.6 ROUND

Description

Rounds a date.

Syntax

General rules

• ROUND returns a date rounded to the unit specified by format model fmt.
• For date, specify a DATE or TIMESTAMP type.
• Specify the format model as a string.

Values that can be specified for the format model

|Format model|Rounding unit| |:---|:---| |Y,YY,YYY,YYYY,
SYYYY,YEAR,SYEAR|Year| |I,IY,IYY,IYYY|Year (values including calendar weeks, in compliance with the ISO standard)| |Q|Quarter| |WW|Week (first day of the year)| |IW|Week (Monday of that week)| |W|Week (first weekday on which the first day of the month falls)| |DAY,DY,D|Week (Sunday of that week)| |MONTH,MON,MM,RM|Month| |CC,SCC|Century| |DDD,DD,J|Day| |HH,HH12,HH24|Hour| |MI|Minute|

• If decimal places are rounded: for year, the boundary for rounding is July 1; for month, the day is 16; and for week, the weekday is Thursday.
• If fmt is omitted, the date is rounded by day.
• If the DATE type of PostgreSQL is specified for the date, that DATE type will be the data type of the return value. If the TIMESTAMP type is specified for the date, the data type will be TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE, irrespective of whether a time zone is used.

Example

In the example below, the result of "June 20, 2016 18:00:00" rounded by Sunday of the week is returned.

~~~ SELECT ROUND(TIMESTAMP'2016/06/20 18:00:00','DAY') FROM DUAL;

## round

2016-06-19 00:00:00+09 (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.3.7 SESSIONTIMEZONE

Description

Returns the time zone of the session.

Syntax

General rules

• SESSIONTIMEZONE returns the time zone value between sessions.
• The data type of the return value is TEXT.

Note

• If using SESSIONTIMEZONE, it is necessary to specify "oracle" for search_path in advance.
• The value returned by SESSIONTIMEZONE becomes the value set in the "TimeZone" server parameter.

See

Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.

Example

In the following example, the time zone of the session is returned.

~~~ SELECT SESSIONTIMEZONE() FROM DUAL;

## sessiontimezone

Japan (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.3.8 SYSDATE

Description

Returns the system date.

Syntax

General rules

• SYSDATE returns the system date.
• The data type of the return value is the DATE type of orafce.

Note

• If using SYSDATE, it is necessary to specify "oracle" for search_path in advance.
• The date returned by SYSDATE depends on the time zone value of the orafce database.

See

• Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.
• Refer to "DBTIMEZONE" for information on the time zone values of the database.
• Refer to "The SQL Language" > "Data Types" > "Date/Time Types" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on the time zone.

Example

In the following example, the system date is returned.

~~~ SELECT SYSDATE() FROM DUAL;

## sysdate

2016-06-22 08:06:51 (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.3.9 TRUNC

Description

Truncates a date.

Syntax

General rules

• TRUNC returns a date truncated to the unit specified by format model fmt.
• For date, specify a DATE or TIMESTAMP type.
• Specify the format model as a string. The values that can be specified are the same as for ROUND.
• If fmt is omitted, the date is truncated by day.
• If the DATE type of PostgreSQL is specified for the date, that DATE type will be the data type of the return value. If the TIMESTAMP type is specified for the date, the data type will be TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE, irrespective of whether a time zone is used.

See

Refer to "ROUND" for information on the values that can be specified for the format model.

Example

In the example below, the result of "August 10, 2016 15:30:00" truncated by the day is returned.

~~~ SELECT TRUNC(TIMESTAMP'2016/08/10 15:30:00','DDD') FROM DUAL;

## trunc

2016-08-10 00:00:00+09 (1 row) ~~~

### 5.4 Data Type Formatting Functions

The following data type formatting functions are supported:

• TO_CHAR
• TO_DATE
• TO_MULTI_BYTE
• TO_NUMBER
• TO_SINGLE_BYTE

#### 5.4.1 TO_CHAR

Description

Converts a value to a string.

Syntax

General rules

• TO_CHAR converts the specified number or date/time value to a string.
• For num, specify a numeric data type.
• For date, specify a DATE or TIMESTAMP type. Also, you must set a date/time format for the orafce.nls_date_format variable in advance. A setting example using the SET statement is shown below. Setting example of orafce.nls_date_format using a SET statement

~~~ SET orafce.nls_date_format = 'YYYY/MM/DD HH24:MI:SS'; ~~~

• The data type of the return value is TEXT.

Note

• If using TO_CHAR for specifying date/time values, it is necessary to specify "oracle" for search_path in advance.
• The orafce.nls_date_format settings can be set using any of the methods for setting server parameters.
• If orafce.nls_date_format is set, the following message may be displayed when an SQL statement is executed, however, the parameter settings are enabled, so you can ignore this.

~~~ WARNING: unrecognized configuration parameter "orafce.nls_date_format" ~~~

See

• Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.
• Refer to "Server Administration" > "Server Configuration" > "Setting Parameters" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on how to set the server parameters.

Example

In the following example, the numeric value "123.45" is returned as a string.

~~~ SELECT TO_CHAR(123.45) FROM DUAL;

## to_char

123.45 (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.4.2 TO_DATE

Description

Converts a string to a date in accordance with the specified format.

Syntax

General rules

• TO_DATE converts string str to a date in accordance with the specified format fmt.
• Specify a string indicating the date/time.
• Specify the required date/time format. If omitted, the format specified in the oracle.nls_date_format variable is used. If the oracle.nls_date_format variable has not been set, the existing date/time input interpretation is used. A setting example using the SET statement is shown below.

Setting example of orafce.nls_date_format using a SET statement

~~~ SET orafce.nls_date_format = 'YYYY/MM/DD HH24:MI:SS'; ~~~

• The data type of the return value is TIMESTAMP.

Note

• The above TO_DATE specification uses orafce for its behavior, which is different to that of TO_DATE of PostgreSQL. The search_path parameter must be modified for it to behave according to the orafce specification.
• The orafce.nls_date_format settings can be set using any of the methods for setting server parameters.
• If orafce.nls_date_format is set, the following message may be displayed when an SQL statement is executed, however, the parameter settings are enabled, so you can ignore this.

~~~ WARNING: unrecognized configuration parameter "orafce.nls_date_format" ~~~

Information

The general rule for TO_DATE for specifying the data type format of PostgreSQL is as follows:

• The data type of the return value is the DATE type of PostgreSQL.

See

• Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.
• Refer to "The SQL Language" > "Functions and Operators" > "Data Type Formatting Functions" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on TO_DATE of PostgreSQL.
• Refer to "Server Administration" > "Server Configuration" > "Setting Parameters" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on how to set the server parameters.
• Refer to "Date/Time Support" > "Date/Time Input Interpretation" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on the interpretation of existing date/time input.

Example

In the following example, the string "2016/12/31" is converted to a date and returned.

~~~ SELECT TO_DATE('2016/12/31','YYYY/MM/DD') FROM DUAL;

## to_date

2016-12-31 00:00:00 (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.4.3 TO_MULTI_BYTE

Description

Converts a single-byte string to a multibyte string.

Syntax

General rules

• TO_MULTI_BYTE converts halfwidth characters in string str to fullwidth characters, and returns the converted string.
• Only halfwidth alphanumeric characters, spaces and symbols can be converted.
• The data type of the return value is TEXT.

Example

In the following example, "abc123" is converted to fullwidth characters and returned.

~~~ SELECT TO_MULTI_BYTE('abc123') FROM DUAL;

## to_multi_byte

(1 row) ~~~

"******" is multibyte "abc123".

#### 5.4.4 TO_NUMBER

Description

Converts a value to a number in accordance with the specified format.

Syntax

General rules

• TO_NUMBER converts the specified value to a numeric value in accordance with the specified format fmt.
• For num, specify a numeric data type.
• For str, specify a string indicating the numeric value. Numeric values must comprise only of convertible characters.
• Specify the required numeric data format. The specified numeric value is handled as is as a data type expression.
• The data type of the return value is NUMERIC.

See

Refer to "The SQL Language" > "Functions and Operators" > "Data Type Formatting Functions" in the PostgreSQL Documentation for information on numeric value formats.

Example

In the following example, the numeric literal "-130.5" is converted to a numeric value and returned.

~~~ SELECT TO_NUMBER(-130.5) FROM DUAL;

## to_number

``````-130.5
``````

(1 row) ~~~

#### 5.4.5 TO_SINGLE_BYTE

Description

Converts a multibyte string to a single-byte string.

Syntax

General rules

• TO_SINGLE_BYTE converts fullwidth characters in string str to halfwidth characters, and returns the converted string.
• Only fullwidth alphanumeric characters, spaces and symbols that can be displayed in halfwidth can be converted.
• The data type of the return value is TEXT.

Example

In the following example, "******" is converted to halfwidth characters and returned. "******" is multibyte "xyz999".

~~~ SELECT TO_SINGLE_BYTE('**') FROM DUAL;

## to_single_byte

xyz999 (1 row) ~~~

### 5.5 Conditional Expressions

The following functions for making comparisons are supported:

• DECODE
• LNNVL
• NANVL
• NVL
• NVL2

#### 5.5.1 DECODE

Description

Compares values and if they match, returns a corresponding value.

Syntax

General rules

• DECODE compares values of the value expression to be converted and the search values one by one. If the values match, a corresponding result value is returned. If no values match, the default value is returned if it has been specified. A NULL value is returned if a default value has not been specified.
• If the same search value is specified more than once, then the result value returned is the one listed for the first occurrence of the search value.
• The following data types can be used in result values and in the default value:
• CHAR
• VARCHAR
• VARCHAR2
• NCHAR
• NCHAR VARYING
• NVARCHAR2
• TEXT
• INTEGER
• BIGINT
• NUMERIC
• DATE
• TIME WITHOUT TIME ZONE
• TIMESTAMP WITHOUT TIME ZONE
• TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE
• The same data type must be specified for the values to be converted and the search values. However, note that different data types may also be specified if a literal is specified in the search value, and the value expression to be converted contains data types that can be converted.
• If the result values and default value are all literals, the data types for these values will be as shown below:
• If all values are string literals, all will become character types.
• If there is one or more numeric literal, all will become numeric types.
• If there is one or more literal cast to the datetime/time types, all will become datetime/time types.
• If the result values and default value contain a mixture of literals and non-literals, the literals will be converted to the data types of the non-literals.
• The same data type must be specified for all result values and for the default value. However, different data types can be specified if the data type of any of the result values or default value can be converted - these data types are listed below:

Data type combinations that can be converted by DECODE (summary)

 Other result values or default value Numeric type Character type Date/time type Result value (any) Numeric type Y N N Character type N Y N Date/time type N N S(*1)

Y: Can be converted

S: Some data types can be converted

N: Cannot be converted

*1: The data types that can be converted for date/time types are listed below:

Result value and default value date/time data types that can be converted by DECODE

 Other result values or default value DATE TIME WITHOUT TIME ZONE TIMESTAMP WITHOUT TIME ZONE TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Result value (any) DATE Y N Y Y TIME WITHOUT TIME ZONE N Y N N TIMESTAMP WITHOUT TIME ZONE Y N Y Y TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE Y N Y Y

Y: Can be converted

N: Cannot be converted

• The data type of the return value will be the data type within the result or default value that is longest and has the highest precision.

Example

In the following example, the value of col3 in table t1 is compared and converted to a different value. If the col3 value matches search value 1, the result value returned is "one". If the col3 value does not match any of search values 1, 2, or 3, the default value "other number" is returned.

~~~ SELECT col1, DECODE(col3, 1, 'one', 2, 'two', 3, 'three', 'other number') "num-word" FROM t1; col1 | num-word ------+---------- 1001 | one 1002 | two 1003 | three (3 rows) ~~~

#### 5.5.2 LNNVL

Description

Determines if a value is TRUE or FALSE for the specified condition.

Syntax

General rules

• LNNVL determines if a value is TRUE or FALSE for the specified condition. If the result of the condition is FALSE or NULL, TRUE is returned. If the result of the condition is TRUE, FALSE is returned.
• The expression for returning TRUE or FALSE is specified in the condition.
• The data type of the return value is BOOLEAN.

Example

In the following example, col1 and col3 of table t1 are returned when col3 has a value of 2000 or less, or null values.

~~~ SELECT col1,col3 FROM t1 WHERE LNNVL( col3 > 2000 ); col1 | col3 ------+------ 1001 | 1000 1002 | 2000 2002 | (3 row) ~~~

#### 5.5.3 NANVL

Description

Returns a substitute value when a value is not a number (NaN).

Syntax

General rules

• NANVL returns a substitute value when the specified value is not a number (NaN). The substitute value can be either a number or a string that can be converted to a number.
• For expr and substituteNum, specify a numeric data type. If expr and substituteNum have different data types, they will be converted to the data type with greater length or precision, and that is the data type that will be returned.
• For substituteNum, you can also specify a string indicating the numeric value.
• The data type used for the return value if a string is specified for the substitute value will be the same as the data type of expr.

Example

In the following example, "0" is returned if the value of col1 in table t1 is a NaN value.

~~~ SELECT col1, NANVL(col3,0) FROM t1; col1 | nanvl ------+------- 2001 | 0 (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.5.4 NVL

Description

Returns a substitute value when a value is NULL.

Syntax

General rules

• NVL returns a substitute value when the specified value is NULL. When expr1 is NULL, expr2 is returned. When expr1 is not NULL, expr1 is returned.
• Specify the same data types for expr1 and expr2. However, if a constant is specified in expr2, and the data type can also be converted by expr1, different data types can be specified. When this happens, the conversion by expr2 is done to suit the data type in expr1, so the value of expr2 returned when expr1 is a NULL value will be the value converted in the data type of expr1. This is not necessary for types (numeric, int) and (bigint, int).

Example

In the following example, "IS NULL" is returned if the value of col1 in table t1 is a NULL value.

~~~ SELECT col2, NVL(col1,'IS NULL') "nvl" FROM t1; col2 | nvl ------+--------- aaa | IS NULL (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.5.5 NVL2

Description

Returns a substitute value based on whether a value is NULL or not NULL.

Syntax

General rules

• NVL2 returns a substitute value based on whether the specified value is NULL or not NULL. When expr is NULL, substitute2 is returned. When it is not NULL, substitute1 is returned.
• Specify the same data types for expr, substitute1, and substitute2. However, if a literal is specified in substitute1 or substitute2, and the data type can also be converted by expr, different data types can be specified. When this happens, substitute1 or substitute2 is converted to suit the data type in expr, so the value of substitute2 returned when expr is a NULL value will be the value converted to the data type of expr.

Example

In the following example, if a value in column col1 in table t1 is NULL, "IS NULL" is returned, and if not NULL, "IS NOT NULL" is returned.

~~~ SELECT col2, NVL2(col1,'IS NOT NULL','IS NULL') FROM t1; col2 | nvl2 ------+--------- aaa | IS NULL bbb | IS NOT NULL (2 row) ~~~

### 5.6 Aggregate Functions

The following aggregation functions are supported:

• LISTAGG
• MEDIAN

#### 5.6.1 LISTAGG

Description

Returns a concatenated, delimited list of string values.

Syntax

General rules

• LISTAGG concatenates and delimits a set of string values and returns the result.
• For delimiter, specify a string. If the delimiter is omitted, a list of strings without a delimiter is returned.
• The data type of the return value is TEXT.

Example

In the following example, the result with values of column col2 in table t1 delimited by ':' is returned.

~~~ SELECT LISTAGG(col2,':') FROM t1;

## listagg

AAAAA:BBBBB:CCCCC (1 row) ~~~

#### 5.6.2 MEDIAN

Description

Calculates the median of a set of numbers.

Syntax

General rules

• MEDIAN returns the median of a set of numbers.
• The numbers must be numeric data type.
• The data type of the return value will be REAL if the numbers are REAL type, or DOUBLE PRECISION if any other type is specified.

Example

In the following example, the median of column col3 in table t1 is returned.

~~~ SELECT MEDIAN(col3) FROM t1;

## median

2000 (1 row) ~~~

### 5.7 Functions That Return Internal Information

The following functions that return internal information are supported:

• DUMP

#### 5.7.1 DUMP

Description

Returns internal information of a value.

Syntax

General rules

• DUMP returns the internal information of the values specified in expressions in a display format that is in accordance with the output format.
• The internal code (Typ) of the data type, the data length (Len) and the internal expression of the data are output as internal information.
• Any data type can be specified for the expressions.
• The display format (base n ) of the internal expression of the data is specified for the output format. The base numbers that can be specified are 8, 10, and 16. If omitted, 10 is used as the default.
• The data type of the return value is VARCHAR.

Note

The information output by DUMP will be the complete internal information. Therefore, the values may change due to product updates, and so on.

Example

In the following example, the internal information of column col1 in table t1 is returned.

~~~ SELECT col1, DUMP(col1) FROM t1; col1 | dump ------+------------------------------------ 1001 | Typ=25 Len=8: 32,0,0,0,49,48,48,49 1002 | Typ=25 Len=8: 32,0,0,0,49,48,48,50 1003 | Typ=25 Len=8: 32,0,0,0,49,48,48,51 (3 row) ~~~

#### 5.8 Datetime Operator

The following datetime operators are supported for the DATE type of orafce.

Datetime operator

|Operation|Example|Result| |:---:|:---|:---| |+|DATE'2016/01/01' + 10|2016-01-11 00:00:00| |-|DATE'2016/03/20' - 35|2016-02-14 00:00:00| |-|DATE'2016/09/01' - DATE'2015/12/31'|245|

Note

If using datetime operators for the DATE type of orafce, it is necessary to specify "oracle" for search_path in advance.

See

Refer to "Notes on Using orafce" for information on how to edit search_path.