md5hash 1.0.1

This Release
md5hash 1.0.1
Date
Status
Stable
Abstract
Efficient inline storage of 128-bit binary data (e.g. MD5 hashes).
Description
The usual way to store MD5 hashes is in varlena columns (e.g. TEXT), which occupies unnecessary amount of data (over 32B for 16B of data). This extension defines a native 16-byte data type, stored inline, allowing more efficient storage etc. which is especially useful for hashes used as identifiers.
Released By
tomasv
License
The (three-clause) BSD License
Resources
Special Files
Tags

Extensions

md5hash 1.0.1

README

md5hash data type

This extension provides a simple data type storing 128-bit values (e.g. MD5 hashes) in a bit more efficient way - in a fixed-length columns and inline.

The extension defines the 'md5hash' type itself, casts, operators and an operator class for btree indexes. It's fairly straightforward and simple to add more operators or classes.

Installation

Installing this is very simple, especially if you're using pgxn client. All you need to do is this:

$ pgxn install md5hash
$ pgxn load -d mydb md5hash

and you're done. You may also install the extension manually:

$ make install
$ psql dbname -c "CREATE EXTENSION md5hash"

And if you're on an older version (pre-9.1), you have to run the SQL script manually

$ psql dbname < `pg_config --sharedir`/contrib/md5hash--1.0.1.sql

That's all you need to do.

Usage

Basically all you need to do is use the 'md5hash' just like any other data type in CREATE TABLE statement

CREATE TABLE test_table (
   id md5hash PRIMARY KEY,
   ...
);

Notice this already creates an index on the md5hash column. Then you may start querying the column just like any other data type:

SELECT * FROM test_table
 WHERE id = 'c4ca4238a0b923820dcc509a6f75849b'

And so on. Nothing extraordinary.

Benefits

Let's do some very simple benchmarking, demonstrating the benefits of this data type.

First let's look at space required to store MD5 hashes in the plain TEXT column and in the md5hash data type. Try for example this:

CREATE TABLE test_md5hash (id md5hash       PRIMARY KEY);
CREATE TABLE test_text    (id varchar(32)   PRIMARY KEY);

INSERT INTO test_md5hash SELECT md5(i::text)
                           FROM generate_series(1,1000000) s(i);

INSERT INTO test_text SELECT md5(i::text)
                           FROM generate_series(1,1000000) s(i);

SELECT relname,
    (pg_relation_size(oid)/1024) AS relation_size_kB,
    (pg_total_relation_size(oid)/1024) AS total_size_kB
  FROM pg_class WHERE relname LIKE 'test_%';

      relname      | relation_size_kb | total_size_kb 
-------------------+------------------+---------------
 test_md5hash      |            43248 |         82744
 test_md5hash_pkey |            39464 |         39464
 test_text         |            66672 |        141816
 test_text_pkey    |            75096 |         75096
(4 rows)

Yup, the md5hash type requires only about 60% space compared to the TEXT data type. Not bad, especially on systems that are low on memory (which is a rather common situation). This is because md5hash data type stores the data in a binary format in 16B, while TEXT stores the data as text, i.e. 32B (16B in hex) and a varlena header (at least 1B).

The difference is smaller because each tuple has a header (24B or more). And obviously if there are more columns in the table, the difference will be even smaller. However with indexes, the difference will remain.

Now, let's see the difference when querying the column - to eliminate planning overhead, I've used prepared statements and execute 1.000.000 queries with 'WHERE id = $1' condition (using the PK index).

TEXT     129 seconds
md5hash  117 seconds

Not a terrible improvement, but still interesting. And the difference will grow as the memory gets stressed.

License

This software is distributed under the terms of BSD 2-clause license. See LICENSE or http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php for more details.